For the DC Comics superhero, see .
Quicksilver (Pietro Maximoff) is a fictional appearing in published by . The character first appeared in the comic book #4 (March 1964) and was created by and . The character has since starred in two self-titled , and has historically been depicted as a regular team member in superhero title .
Quicksilver has the superhuman ability to move at great speeds. In most depictions, he is a , a human born with innate superhuman powers. In comic book stories beginning in 2015, he is the product of genetic experimentation by the .Quicksilver most commonly appears in fiction associated with the , having been introduced as an adversary for the superhero team. In later stories, he became a superhero himself. He is the twin brother of the and, in most depictions, the son of and the half-brother of .
Debuting in the , Quicksilver has featured in several decades of Marvel continuity, starring in the self-titled series Quicksilver and as a regular team member in title the . The character has also appeared in a range of movie, television, and video game adaptations. Two separate live-action versions of the character have been adapted by two different film studios: portrays the character in the franchise, appearing in (2014) and (2015), while portrays Quicksilver in the films (2014) and (2016). He had a cameo in (2018) and will return in the upcoming film .
In 2006, named Quicksilver #23 on their list of "The Top 25 X-Men Of All Time" commenting that "Quicksilver was the shining example of a villain turned good", and as #44 on their list of the "Top 50 Avengers".
Quicksilver first appears in #4 (March 1964) and was created by writer and artist/co-writer . The character initially appears as an antagonist to the X-Men, although before long he becomes a member of the and appears as a regular character in that title beginning with Avengers #16 in May 1965. He has made numerous other appearances in that title, and other related titles, sometimes as a member of the team, sometimes as an ally, and sometimes as an antagonist.
From 1991 to 1993 Quicksilver was a regular character in the first volume of . The series emphasized the character's irritability and arrogance, which writer felt were a natural consequence of his powers, explaining:
Have you ever stood in the behind a woman with 20 packages who wants to know every single way she can send them to Africa? It drives you nuts! You think to yourself, "Why do I have to put up with this? These people are so slow, they're costing me time, and it's so damned irritating. I wish I didn't have to put up with this." Now—imagine that the entire world was like that... except for you. ... to Quicksilver, as he said in an issue of many, many moons ago, the rest of the world is moving in slow motion. That must really, really get on your nerves. Quicksilver lives in a world filled with people who don't know how to use , and want to know all the ways to send packages to Africa, and can never get your order right in a unless you repeat it several times. That would tend to make you feel very superior to everyone and very impatient with everyone.
Quicksilver also starred in Quicksilver, a regular ongoing eponymous series that began in November 1997 and ran for 13 issues. The character also played a pivotal role in the and .
Quicksilver appeared as a supporting character in from issue #1 (Aug 2010) through its final issue #39 (Jan 2013). He appears as one of the members of All-New , which was launched in 2014 as part of the second wave. Writer 's handling of the character in that book earned the character a 2014 @ssie award from . AICN's Matt Adler commented that David writes the character best, and that the "arrogant, impatient speedster" made the title worth following.
Fictional character biographyThe first appearance of Quicksilver (top right), on the cover of X-Men #4 (March 1964).
Pietro and his twin sister, , were raised by Django and Marya Maximoff, a couple. As adolescents Pietro Django Maximoff and his sister Wanda discovered that they had peculiar talents. When Django began to steal food to feed his starving family, enraged villagers attacked the Roma camp. Using his phenomenal speed, Pietro fled from the camp with his sister. Over the next few years, Wanda and Pietro wandered Central Europe, living off the land.
The character first appears with Wanda, now called the Scarlet Witch, as a part of the . The siblings were originally presented as , with Pietro possessing speed and Wanda able to control . The pair are recruited by after he saves Wanda from a mob after she accidentally causes a house to burst into flame. Quicksilver stays with her to protect her. After several confrontations with the X-Men, they depart when Magneto and his lackey the are abducted by the cosmic entity the . They then travel back to . Pietro and his sister reform and are recruited by to the superhero team the , after they discover they are advertising for new members and want to get support for themselves.
Together with leader and former villain , the four become the second generation of Avengers, and are later dubbed "Cap's Kooky Quartet". Quicksilver first thinks he should be leader, though he is captured by the on the first mission. He is rescued by the Avengers, who defeat the Minotaur without him, and would sometimes quarrel with the other members. The Scarlet Witch becomes close friends with Hawkeye and both become loyal members of the team until Wanda is accidentally shot on a mission against Magneto. Quicksilver then flees from the Avengers with his wounded sister. The pair accompany Magneto back to his mid- base, where he captures the X-Men and Pietro skirmishes with the X-Man . The twins finally realize that Magneto is the true villain. Pietro and Wanda reappear in the title X-Men and are then kidnapped along with several other mutants by the , and are subsequently freed by the X-Men.
The character reappears in the title Avengers, and advises the team that Wanda has been kidnapped and taken to another dimension by the warlord . After Wanda is rescued, Pietro and his sister rejoin the team. During one mission Quicksilver is wounded by a Sentinel and is found by , a member of the . Crystal nurses Pietro back to health, and the pair are eventually married. Pietro and Wanda also meet Robert Frank—formerly hero, the —who was present at Mount (the birthplace of the siblings) with his wife at the time of their birth. Frank briefly joins the Avengers, believing Pietro and Wanda to be his children. The Scarlet Witch also becomes romantically involved with her Avengers teammate, the android . Although Pietro initially disapproves, he eventually gives his blessing to their marriage.Cover of #16 (May 1965), featuring the debut of Quicksilver (center left) in The Avengers.
Quicksilver features with the Inhumans and Fantastic Four against the villain the , and the siblings' origin is explored in the title Avengers when Django Maximoff kidnaps Pietro and Wanda and returns to in the country of , where they were born. After a battle with the Avengers against the , the siblings learn from , one of the created by the , that they are the children of Maximoff, and not Robert Frank.Quicksilver then returns to (city of the Inhumans) and is revealed to have had a daughter () with Crystal.
During the Vision and the Scarlet Witch, Magneto forces Bova to reveal the truth about his missing children, who are revealed to be Pietro and Wanda. After their mother Magda dies in childbirth, the children are given by the High Evolutionary to Django Maximoff to raise as his own. Pietro and Wanda reject Magneto when told. His marriage to Crystal is also strained when she has an . Crystal's uncle uses technology to cause Quicksilver to become . This drove him to frame the Avengers for treason as his perceptions are twisted to perceive them as having 'betrayed' him, forcing them to escape the government-sponsored , and then deal with Quicksilver's new 'team' of LMD-based duplicates of the , until the Vision convinces Pietro to stand down by showing him images of his newborn nephews.
Quicksilver battles the West Coast Avengers and is captured by the Inhumans and cured of his condition. In an effort to repent for his actions, Pietro aids the Avengers West Coast against Magneto and the villain , who has captured Wanda. Although successful, Pietro refuses to return to Crystal and joins the U.S. government-sponsored superhero team X-Factor. The character and Crystal are reunited during the storyline "Bloodties" when the Avengers, X-Factor and X-Men team to stop a group of mutant who kidnap their daughter Luna, and are responsible for a on the nation of . After dealing with the threat, Quicksilver learns of Crystal's relationship with Avenger the and leaves, also resigning from X-Factor.
Quicksilver takes daughter Luna and travels to Mt. Wundergore, aiding the High Evolutionary and his against and the . Quicksilver uses the experimental Isotope E to augment his powers, allowing him to move at greater supersonic speeds. A future version of Pietro called "Nestor" appears and reveals that his powers are not speed but rather temporal based.Quicksilver also rejoins a reformed Avengers.
With half-sister , Quicksilver spies on their father Magneto, who is now the ruler of Genosha. Quicksilver is banished when he rallies the Avengers against Magneto.
House of M
Quicksilver plays a pivotal role in the limited series , convincing his now mentally unstable sister Wanda to use her abilities to warp reality and create a world where mutants are in a majority and humans are the minority. Thanks to Wolverine retaining his memories, along with the mysterious , many of Earth's heroes regain their memories and battle Magneto, who also remembers and realizes that Pietro is to blame for this mistake. Magneto kills Quicksilver (crushing his body with a ) in a rage at this perceived 'abuse' of his dream, although the character is and the normal reality restored when the Scarlet Witch witnesses this, telling Magneto he cares more for mutants than his own children. In retaliation the Scarlet Witch has also depowered 98% of the mutant population, which by accident includes Quicksilver.
Son of M
The story continues in the limited series , with Quicksilver, desperate to regain his powers, exposing himself to the (the source of the Inhumans' mutations and abilities) and inserts Terrigen crystals into his body—all without permission from Black Bolt. Courtesy of the Terrigen crystals, Quicksilver gains new "time jumping" powers and kidnaps his daughter Luna. Quicksilver discovers the crystals can restore mutant abilities but have an extreme effect on non-Inhuman physiology, causing several deaths.Quicksilver and Crystal meet again in the direct sequel, limited series , when Black Bolt demands the return of the crystals. When Crystal sees how he has mutated, she declares their marriage according to Inhuman law.
In the title X-Factor, the crystals are removed from Quicksilver's body by another mutant, leaving him powerless once again. Destitute and for in the X-Factor: The Quick and the Dead, Quicksilver has a series of and inexplicably regains his super speed. Escaping jail, Quicksilver rescues an innocent and rediscovers his desire to be a hero.
Quicksilver appears in the title and is used as a pawn by , with the character's spirit trapped in the arcane called the . The Avengers defeat Chthon, and Quicksilver's consciousness is "downloaded" into the body of , before being restored to his own body.Quicksilver joins the team after learning that it is Wanda ( god in disguise) who brought the team together. After the events of the storyline the character is publicly of former crimes, with an unknown being blamed (although Henry Pym, Maximoff's daughter Luna, and Avengers butler are aware of the lie). Quicksilver also resumes wearing his original costume.Quicksilver loses the respect of his daughter Luna when he lies to the Inhumans and claims that many of his past actions were actually perpetrated by a Skrull impostor, although Pym tolerates the lie as he feels that Quicksilver deserves a chance to redeem himself.
Quicksilver finally learns that the person he thought was his sister is actually Loki in disguise. Enraged, he and the rest of the team travel to the Isle of Silence to set a trap for the god of mischief. After imprisoning Loki in a device designed by Hank Pym, he begins torturing the god for information about Wanda's whereabouts. Loki offers no information about her and manages to contact Thor to beg for his help. Thor arrives and attacks Quicksilver for the way he is treating Loki. He is able to outrun the thunder god's lightning but is eventually overpowered. He is one of the Avengers who joins , and their allies in an assault on Olympus Group Headquarters. He battles Amazon warrior women alongside and helps a wounded Wolverine defeat the , stabbing him through the chest with his own weapon.
Quicksilver is later summoned by the using Amadeus Cho's technology, to defend Asgard against the Thunderbolts. He single-handedly defeats who is in possession of the . Mr. X isn't able to react quickly enough despite his abilities and Quicksilver viciously beats him down with a piece of debris. He is seen alongside the other Avengers against the Void-possessed Sentry in the events of Siege.
Avengers: The Children's Crusade
Quicksilver is searching for his sister in Wundagore when Magneto and the Young Avengers go to find the Scarlet Witch. After trying to abduct his nephew Wiccan so he can assist him in finding his sister, he is stopped by his father and his other nephew, Speed. After Wiccan suggests that maybe Magneto actually did want to make up for his past, he became angry and said, "Nephew the last time I allowed myself to believe that..... My father tried to kill me".Quicksilver prepares to fight his father but when debris from his rampage strikes his sister it is found that the Scarlet Witch there is actually a Doombot in disguise. The journey takes Quicksilver and his comrades all the way to Latveria so they rescue the Scarlet Witch. After the Scarlet Witch turns herself in to the X-Men and the Avengers a fight breaks out between the two groups. After being knocked out along with all the other Avengers and X-Men by his sister, he is finally reunited with his sister.
Quicksilver joins the teaching staff of to teach young students how to become heroes. He does so in order to distance himself from the legacy of his father Magneto. One of the new students, Finesse, figures out that his story about being abducted by Skrulls is a lie. She blackmails him into giving her "private lessons" on everything he learned during his time with the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants. Finesse convinces Quicksilver to help her search for the Taskmaster, who might be her biological father. After arriving at what they thought was an abandoned training camp, they found it still in use and quickly captured the criminals they found there. Quicksilver returned to the mansion and encountered Tigra, who was upset because some of the students assaulted the Hood on her behalf. During a heated exchange Quicksilver managed to convince her that kicking them out of the Academy for trying to help would only turn them against becoming heroes. At the new campus for the Avengers Academy (where the Faculty are offering to train other superpowered youths), Quicksilver is revealed to be mentoring as a teacher's assistant.
In the miniseries "Magneto: Not a Hero", is resurrected under unknown circumstances and forms a new Brotherhood of Mutants with and mutated deformed versions of , , Quicksilver, , and . It is soon revealed that the mutated versions of Blob, Mastermind, Quicksilver, Scarlet Witch, and Toad are clones created by Joseph.
Quicksilver has joined the privately owned superhero team X-Factor. When confronted during a press conference by over his actions meant to repower mutants and his lying about a Skrull having been responsible, Pietro finally admitted in public that he had been responsible and had tried to avoid facing the consequences; by doing this, he earned his daughter's respect back, and the two reconciled.
Wanda and other heroes and villains experienced a moral inversion during a clash with the .Quicksilver and Magneto try to talk the inverted Wanda down, but when Wanda attacks them with a curse designed to punish her blood relatives that only affects Quicksilver, Wanda realizes that Magneto is not their biological father.
Quicksilver and Scarlet Witch later take a trip to . After being tracked down and defeated by Luminous (a female who was created by the genetic material of Scarlet Witch and Quicksilver), Pietro and Wanda were brought to the High Evolutionary himself. He revealed to them that they are actually the long thought deceased children of Django and Marya Maximoff, Anna and Mateo. He also told them the truth where they were not mutants at all, but they had been experimented on by the High Evolutionary. After escaping from the High Evolutionary's experimentations, Pietro and Wanda located the Avengers Unity Division (who had traveled to the Counter-Earth looking for the twins) and helped the inhabitants of Lowtown (a refuge for the High Evolutionary's rejects) from their creator's assault. After the High Evolutionary is defeated and he escapes into a portal with Luminous, Quicksilver and Scarlet Witch return to Earth with the Avengers Unity Division.
All-New, All-Different Marvel
When the began, Pietro came to ask Wanda for help, but Wanda refused, because she and Pietro disagreed on which side was right - Pietro not liking the idea of profiling people based on what they might do and Wanda feeling that thinking about the future would have prevented many of their more dangerous mistakes in the past - past precedent made Wanda feel that introducing her powers to a conflict of this nature could be more dangerous than the existing situation, and she resented Pietro still trying to tell her what to do as though she was a child, bluntly informing him that his refusal to learn from his mistakes marked him as a sociopath. He has also been revealed to have fallen under the telepathic control of the , acting as a 'sleeper agent' in the Avengers as part of the Skull's current campaign.
During the storyline, Quicksilver appears as a member of the Underground which is a resistance movement against Hydra ever since they took over the United States.Quicksilver and Hercules lead a strike force to find the Cosmic Cube fragments so that they can use it to restore Captain America to normal.
During the "Avengers: No Surrender” Storyline, Quicksilver is one of the heroes remaining in the cosmic game between and Challenger. He is frozen because of ’s attempt at reviving the frozen Vision, but the process was later reversed. He later uses his extreme agility and 's powers to catch the beacon trapping his fellow Avengers, but in doing so he had pushed himself to the limit and apparently died.
Powers and abilities
Quicksilver was originally presented as a capable of moving and thinking at superhuman speeds. Originally capable of running at the , exposure to the 's Isotope E made it possible for the character to run at of up to 10 and resist the effects of , reduced , and impact while moving at super-speeds. Also, he has a fast metabolism and can heal more rapidly than the average human. The character's speed allows him to perform such feats as creating -strength winds and running up walls or across bodies of water. Pietro's mind can perceive information with a photographic memory short term, becoming faster than the , because he can shift his thoughts at a speed faster than normal thought. Also, he can cause vibrations in his body to transfer to solid material, and has superior agility and reflexes compared to other mutants. It has been revealed that one of the reasons for his abrasive and impatient personality is that it seems to him that the rest of the world is moving in slow motion and that he is constantly waiting for it to catch up. As he once explained, "Have you ever had a day where you are at the ATM and you are in a hurry because you're running late but the person in front of you doesn't know how to use the ATM and they're taking forever? Now imagine what it must be like to spend every day surrounded by people who don't know how to use the ATM."
Quicksilver loses his powers of speed when his sister removes most of his mutant powers, but gains new powers courtesy of the Inhumans' . The mist gives Quicksilver the ability to displace himself out of mainstream time and space and "jump" into the future. The character can summon several time-displaced duplicates of himself and appear to teleport by "jumping" into the future and then returning to the present at a new location. By voluntarily embedding fragments of the Terrigen Crystals into his own body, the character could empower former mutants with extreme versions of their superhuman abilities. However, the effect was usually fatal. The crystals are subsequently forced from the character's body by the mutant , leaving him without these abilities. After having a series of hallucinations, Quicksilver saw a woman in mortal danger and felt a desire to be a hero which made him regain his original powers in order to save the woman's life.
It was later revealed that he actually was a normal child that was put through several experiments by the which granted his powers in the first place.
In the /Marvel crossover , Pietro first appears being brainwashed by when the Avengers battle him. Thanks to a combination of Wanda's magic and 's powers, they manage to get Starro's probe off of him. When he and the other Avengers go to the , he becomes interested in the and becomes obsessed with defeating , but he fails twice. During the final battle in the , he finally defeats the Flash, but only does so because there is no Speed Force in the Marvel Universe. He makes an appearance in the final battle with , but it is very brief. He also appears at the end as one of the heroes that started out the entire event.
In the limited series , is contaminated with a that turns victims into flesh-eating , with Quicksilver infected when bitten by a "zombified" (who at the time was impersonating his sister ). This results in the rapid spread of the zombie virus, as Quicksilver is able to infect hundreds around the world in a short amount of time. The character reappears in the limited series , revealed to be working for a "zombified" . Quicksilver is eventually lured into a trap by the and subsequently destroyed. The zombie virus spreads to a different Quicksilver in 'Earth Z', who is featured in the limited series . Here, his body is capable of operating independent of the head.
Marvel Zombies Return
When the zombies from -2149 cross over into Earth-Z, Quicksilver is transformed into a zombie, and in #5 is one of the few remaining zombies left who fought against and his New Avengers, attempting to steal a canister containing the 'cure' that Spider-Man had developed, only for the wall-crawler to accidentally pull Quicksilver's head off when trying to catch him with his webbing. He was killed by a cyborg Iron Man.
Limited series depicts Quicksilver as Petros, the assistant (and secretly, son) of the High Inquisitor of the Spanish Catholic Church, .
Ultimate MarvelUltimate version of Quicksilver with his sister, the , on the cover of Ultimates #8 (Nov. 2002). Art by .
features a version of the character warped by constant abuse from . The character is faster than the version, stating that as a teenager he was already capable of reaching speeds of .
After he and his sister, the , defected from their father's , they joined the . The twin siblings also share an relationship. During the 's story arc, he watched over his father while he was imprisoned in the Triskelion, and threatened to kill him. In , he and his sister are apparently killed; however, Quicksilver later resurfaced at the end of the story arc, and killed .
In #5, Quicksilver assassinated as he is giving a speech at , using the same bullet that was used to murder the Scarlet Witch.
Following the deaths of major characters of the X-Men and the Brotherhood, Pietro began to search for new Brotherhood team members. Mystique, Sabretooth and Teddy (the son of Blob) joined him in Wundagore, along with an apparently reborn Wanda.
Following his sister's orders, Quicksilver tried to help the White House, only resulting in the death of many mutants at the hands of , which were controlled by the before his death. When Pietro arrived in Egypt, he met his father, Erik, completely alive. However, this was revealed to be an illusion from . He attempts to manipulate his younger half-brother, , but is defeated.
Later, he helps Reed Richards assemble some of the and joins his team of .Quicksilver is fatally wounded after he turns against Richards and , and chooses to die by Wanda's graveside.
Pietro later appeared to have been somehow brought back to life. He witnessed an instance of the cosmic phenomenon known as an incursion, the one which caused a collision between the planet Earth of his universe and that of an alternate reality, Earth-616, that resulted in the destruction of both universes.
When the Multiverse was eventually rebuilt, Quicksilver and the other foreign mutants, namely Jimmy, Nomi Blume aka Mach Two, and , were abducted by super-villain geneticist , who brainwashed and turned them into her personal enforcers, the . When Jimmy's natural resistance to telepathy allowed him to break free from Miss Sinister's control and he went rogue, the New Marauders were deployed to retrieve him. In the process, they confronted the Time-Displaced Original X-Men, who had tracked down Jimmy after he was detected by Cerebro. Following a brief confrontation against the X-Men and Jimmy, during which Marvel Girl learned of Miss Sinister's involvement, the New Marauders were ordered by their superior to leave.
Quicksilver and Scarlet Witch appear in the story "What If the X-Men Died on their First Mission?" as allies of following the demise of the and upon the menace by and his . Although invited to join the newly formed team upon the success of their mission, both decline in favor of their current commitments, although they promise their aid if they are needed.
In the one-shot , Peter Magnus is a former college track star, and works in the Homicide Department of the with his father: , Chief Detective and the leader of The Brotherhood.
In other media
- Quicksilver appeared as a part of the Avengers in a few episodes of the Captain America portion of in 1966, voiced by .
- Quicksilver guest-stars in three episodes of , voiced by Adrian Egan.
- Quicksilver is a recurring character in the animated series , voiced by .
- Quicksilver appears as a member/leader of the Brotherhood of Mutants in the animated series , voiced by . He appears in the episodes "Hindsight" Pt. 2, "Timebomb", "Past Discretions", "Battle Lines", "Backlash", and the three part series finale "Foresight".
- Quicksilver is featured in episode "Hexed, Vexed, and Perplexed", voiced by .
Marvel licensed the filming rights of the and related concepts, such as mutants, to . Fox created a based on the franchise. Years later, Marvel started their own film franchise, the , focused on characters that they had not licensed to other studios, such as the . Quicksilver and were part of a dispute between the two studios. Fox would claim the rights over them because they were both mutants and children of , the villain of most of their films, while Marvel would also claim those rights because the editorial history of the characters in comic books is more associated with the Avengers rather than the X-Men. The studios came to an agreement allowing both to use the characters, with the condition that they cannot make reference to the other studio's properties. The Fox films cannot mention them as members of the Avengers, while the Marvel films cannot mention them as mutants or children of Magneto.
- Quicksilver appears in the films (2014) and (2016), played by . In Days of Future Past, Quicksilver is an American teenager, thus his name is Americanized to be Peter Maximoff rather than Pietro. Revealed to be an acquaintance of 's in the future, he is enlisted by Wolverine, Xavier, and Beast to break Magneto out of prison. Director shot all of Quicksilver's scenes in 3,600 frames per second. Returning in Apocalypse, Quicksilver takes on a much larger narrative role, rescuing almost the entire student body of the single-handedly from an explosion caused when Havok accidentally destroys the X-Jet with a blast aimed at Apocalypse. He goes on to participate in the final battle with () before joining the newly reformed X-Men. In Apocalypse, Quicksilver has learned that Magneto is his father, but chooses not to tell him. Making a brief cameo appearance in (2018),Peters will reprise his role in (2019).
- signed on to play Quicksilver in the 2015 film , and first appeared as the character in a mid-credits scene of the 2014 film . In Age of Ultron, Pietro Maximoff and his sister () are volunteers of , both acquiring superhuman powers after volunteering to be experimented upon. Harboring a lifelong hatred for American arms manufacturer (), whose bombs killed their parents, they side with () against the Avengers, before later switching sides. In the final conflict with Ultron, Quicksilver dies a hero's death saving the lives of Hawkeye () and a small child. Despite Taylor-Johnson signing a multi-picture deal, producer has stated that there are no plans for Quicksilver to appear in future Marvel Studios films.
- Quicksilver appears as a supporting character in .
- Quicksilver has a brief in the video game .
- Quicksilver appears as a boss in the PSP, PS2, and Wii versions of , voiced by .
- Quicksilver appears as a playable character in , with Scott Menville reprising his role.
- Quicksilver appears in the video game, voiced by Sunil Malhotra.
- Quicksilver is a playable character in the game .
- Quicksilver is a playable character in .
- Quicksilver is a playable character in , voiced by .
- Quicksilver is playable in the mobile game .
- Whitbrook, James. . io9.com. Archived from on January 1, 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
- Goldstein, Hilary; George, Richard (May 15, 2006). . IGN. Retrieved March 17, 2010
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- Brown, Jonathan Rikard (July 2013). "X-Factor vs. X-Factor: A Look at the Role of Identity in Peter David's X-Factor". . Raleigh, North Carolina: (65): 73–78.
- O'Neill, Patrick Daniel (February 1992). "Peter David". (105). . p. 20.
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- Marvel Zombies 3 #1 - 4 (Dec. 2008 - March 2009)
- Marvel Zombies: Return #5
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